Protein expression molecular pattern discovery by nonnegative principal component analysis

Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Date



Accounting and Finance


The effectiveness of a design process can be critical to the success of information system development projects. There have been very few empirical studies on the effectiveness of design processes that use unified modeling language (UML). This paper establishes a model for measuring the effectiveness of diagram derivation as a way of measuring the effectiveness of the object-oriented design (OOD) process. It utilizes the defect density approach to evaluate an OOD process in terms of how correct the results are that it produces, how consistent those results are and how scalable the process is. To demonstrate how applicable the proposed methodology is, we conducted an empirical evaluation to determine the effectiveness of the user interface driven design process. This study calculated the defect densities for four UML diagrams and measured the effectiveness of the design process on three levels: individual type of defect, type of diagram and the entire project. The results show that the proposed methodology can be reliably used to evaluate an OOD process.