DOI: 10.1063/1.4992007">

Transparent and flexible heaters based on Al:ZnO degenerate semiconductor

Document Type


Publication Date



Physics and Astronomy

Publication Title

Journal of Applied Physics


We report on high performance transparent Al:ZnO (AZO) thin film heaters on flexible polymer (polyethylene terephthalate) and glass substrates which demonstrate low sheet resistivity. AZO thin films were grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at low Ts (below 200 °C) on flexible, transparent polyethylene terephthalate substrates that show stable and reproducible results by applying low (<10 V) voltages. This study also examined identical AZO thin films on glass substrates that showed highly reproducible heating effects due to the Joule heating effect. The potential applications are foldable and wearable electronics, pain/injury therapy smart windows, automobile window defrosters, and low-cost power electronics.

Link to Published Version

DOI: 10.1063/1.4992007