Convergent and discriminant validity and utility of the DSM–5 Levels of Personality Functioning Questionnaire (DLOPFQ): Associations with medical health care provider ratings and measures of physical health

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Journal of Personality Assessment


The ability to evaluate patients’ level of personality functioning in assessing personality disorders has become increasingly important since the DSM–5 Section III hybrid system of personality disorder assessment was released. One measure developed to assess this criterion is the DSM–5 Levels of Personality Functioning Questionnaire (DLOPFQ; Huprich et al., 2017), which assesses individuals’ self and other representations in four domains—self-direction, identity, empathy, and intimacy—across two contexts—work or school and relationships. A sample of 140 psychiatric and internal medicine outpatients were administered several questionnaires, including the DLOPFQ. Provider ratings also were obtained for level of functioning and DSM–5 pathological personality traits. Several of the DLOPFQ scales were significantly correlated with self-reported and provider-reported measures of DSM–5 trait domains and levels of functioning, along with self-reported measures of effortful control, overall physical and mental health, and well-being. Certain DLOPFQ scales and subscales were associated with provider ratings of likeability and patient contact with the providers. However, relatively modest validity coefficients, as well as poor discriminant validity of domain scales, indicate further research and measure refinement might be needed. It is concluded that, although further research is necessary, the DLOPFQ could be useful for understanding patients’ personality pathology in clinical settings.

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