Technologies used in responsive facade systems: A comparative study
Technological advancements in electrical control systems, computer engineering, information technology, artificial intelligence, cybernetics and material science have provided opportunities for the use of dynamic entities in architectures and have initiated the idea of active facades in the 1960s. In this paper, the control, sensing and actuating technologies implemented in responsive facade systems are discussed and five main categories of technologies used in existing cases of facades are identified. The technologies of responsive facades are classified based on the types of control, sensing, and actuating that have been used in the systems as mechanical technology, electro-mechanical technology, passive technology, information technology and advanced material technology. Also, the implemented technologies, their benefits, and shortcomings are compared in order to identify the reasons for utilizing a specific technology. Based on the comparison, an integrated technology is proposed that utilizes advantages of previous technologies with the goals of achieving better efficiency.