Development of a short form for the DSM–5 Levels of Personality Functioning Questionnaire

Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title

Journal of Personality Assessment


© 2019, © 2019 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM–5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) introduced the Alternative DSM–5 Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD). Criterion A of the AMPD conceptualizes level of personality functioning (LOPF) in terms of self- and interpersonal functioning. This article describes the development of a short form for the DSM–5 Level of Personality Functioning Questionnaire (DLOPFQ). A sample of 1,279 participants was drawn from community, clinical, and college settings. All participants completed the DLOPFQ full form. The sample was split into a derivation sample (n = 640) and a validation sample (n = 639). Exploratory factor analysis of the derivation sample data was used to select short-form items. Using the validation sample, confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to assess fit for proposed item-to-subscale assignments. Short-form subscales had good internal consistency estimates, correlated strongly with full-form subscales, correlated with one another, and were associated with relevant constructs. CFA supported a second-order factor model (i.e., four factors loading onto a higher order LOPF factor). Overall, the DLOPFQ Short Form provides a brief assessment of the constructs measured by the full form. Limitations of the study are reviewed, speculations for improving the measure are discussed, and suggestions for future directions are provided.