Optimizing the performance of sustainable nail gel compositions using a mixture experimental design methodology

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Publication Date



Engineering Technology

Publication Title

Progress in Organic Coatings


This study presents the development of two major classes of oligomers extensively used in nail gel formulations - urethane acrylates and polyester acrylates - using sustainable routes. To this end, a series of non-isocyanate acrylic functional polyurethane oligomers (NIPU-ACs) were synthesized by the reaction of cyclic carbonates with a stoichiometric excess of amine, followed by reacting the amine-end groups with methacrylic anhydride (MAAH) to introduce the acrylate functionalities. Moreover, a series of different bio-renewable based polyester oligomers (BR-PS) were synthesized from ring-opening esterification of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) with various mono/di acids such as rosin, benzoic acid, and itaconic acid. Next, the mixture experimental design methodology was used to formulate two categories of sustainable nail gels based on NIPU-ACs and BR-PS oligomers. The formulations were then evaluated for a set of screening tests, and Design-Expert (R) software was used to determine the most suitable correlation between the variable parameters and responses. In each category, the optimized formulation was selected based on the desired performance criteria and evaluated for complementary tests. Finally, three-layer nail gels systems were also developed and tested for durability and removability. The nail gel systems developed in this study not only have eco-friendly composition but meet critical requirements such as fast-curing (1-2 min), easy removability (in 5 min), high gloss (> 85 T 60 degrees), and high durability (> 10,000 wet scrub cycles, acetone double rubs > 100, and abrasion resistance of < 20 mg after 500 cycles). The combination of these attributes makes these nail gels attractive alternatives to the incumbent products for commercial markets.


V. Mannari is a faculty member in EMU's School of Engineering.

*F. Zareanshahraki is an EMU student.

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