Assessment of SMAP and SMOS soil moisture products using triple collocation method over Inner Mongolia

Document Type


Publication Date



Geography and Geology

Publication Title

Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies


Soil moisture (SM) is an indispensable variable in drought monitoring and weather forecast. Lband is found to be the most suitable band for retrieving surface SM. Here, we evaluate two Lband passive microwave SM products Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) in Inner Mongolia. The collected in-situ data from 24 measured sites and the triple collocation (TC) analysis method (using Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Noah and the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) SM data as a referencedataset) are used to evaluate SMAP and SMOS SM products. In the validation based on in-situ SM, SMAP shows the highest correlation with the in-situ SM, followed by GLDAS and SMOS. The root mean square error (RMSE) and bias value of SMAP is the lowest. The validation results of each in-situ station show that the median correlation coefficient of ASCAT is the highest, followed by SMAP, GLDAS, and SMOS. The median RMSE and bias of SMAP are the lowest, while SMOS performs the worst among the three products. TC analysis results show that SMAP has better performance with the majority of the random errors distributed between 0.02 and 0.03 m 3/m3. The average random error of SMAP is small, while SMOS has relatively large random errors. Simultaneously, SMAP performs better than GLDAS and SMOS in grassland and low vegetation coverage areas. The research results and analysis of this paper are expected to provide some insights for improving the quality of SM products.

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