Date Approved


Degree Type

Open Access Senior Honors Thesis

Department or School

English Language and Literature

First Advisor

Elisabeth Däumer

Second Advisor

Mary K. Ramsey


Since vampirism threatens the psychological stability of human beings, religion is utilized to combat vampires in Bram Stoker's Dracula. Jutta Schulze alludes to a dominant discourse that establishes moral binaries through religion. However, when the presence of God is limited or non-existent, individuals within L. J. Smith's Secret Vampire cannot rely on moral binaries to understand vampires. Instead, they must redefine their self-identity without Christian beliefs that would otherwise deem vampires unacceptable. "Too Retro for Religion" examines the exclusive nature presented by religious binaries in Victorian literature in comparison with the transformative human-vampire relationship in modern fiction.