Date Approved


Degree Type

Open Access Senior Honors Thesis

Department or School

History and Philosophy

First Advisor

Philip Schmitz

Second Advisor

Ronald Delph

Third Advisor

James Egge


In this thesis, I examine 31 artifacts within the frame of an in-the-works catalogue that aims to eventually provide an in-depth survey of funerary masks and beads found at Levantine sites, particularly in/at/from Phoenician contexts. The basic catalogue system is outlined, which works to compile known Phoenician masks and head beads that, along with other related objects in the future, could be organized into a single diverse collection. These artifacts are then further broken down by a feature analysis looking to identify and record potential patterns and common stylistic traits among them. The facial feature analysis includes and records the specific aspects and traits of each artifact including the type of artifact, its general condition, gender, if it has an eyelet (place to string onto cord), hair, facial structure, forehead, eye shape, eyebrows, nose, lips, beard, ears, color, and other adornments. This also includes size, where the object was found, chronological age, and the material the mask or bead is made of when possible. This allows for mask-to-mask comparison a bead-to-bead comparison, and a mask-to-bead comparison. Eventually cross-cultural collection comparison and research can be done. The catalogue lays a foundation for future inquiry, and though it is not yet a definitive collection, it can act as a base for future research. The system is malleable and open to interpretation to allow for future adjustments and additions. This paper discusses certain prevalent trends and features of Phoenician masks and beads within the framework of this in-the-works catalogue.

Included in

History Commons