Date Approved


Degree Type

Open Access Senior Honors Thesis

Department or School

History and Philosophy

First Advisor

Richard Nation

Second Advisor

Ronald Delph


In the years between 1890 and 1920, there was an influx of immigration to Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. Due to the copper mines, towns and villages, such as Red Jacket (now known as Calumet) flourished. Surrounding the mines were smaller villages, such as Ahmeek, located five miles northwest of Calumet. Among those that came for a new and “better” life were the Croatians. Most of the Croatians who made their way over were from the same area in Croatia, Ravna Gora. This immigration pattern is an example of chain-migration, people helping those from their country, from the area of the country that they are from, come over to the States. This also shows a trend in men who were hired into the mines and how they were hired. For instance, the employment application for Calumet and Hecla asked not only where the immigrant was from, but who they knew working in the copper mines. The employment applications also asked the relationship the applicant had to that person.1