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In 1993, based on the proficiencies for bibliographic instruction librarians (1986), Diana Shonrock and Craig Mulder investigated if and where librarians were acquiring these proficiencies. In 2007, ACRL approved a revised set of proficiencies: Proficiencies for Instruction Librarians and Coordinators. The authors recreated the 1993 study, using the revised set of proficiencies. Librarians find the new set of proficiencies to be more relevant to their jobs than the older set of proficiencies; however, they are still most likely to acquire the proficiencies primarily outside their library school education.


This is the Version of Record of an article published in College & Research Libraries, November 2010, Vol. 71 Issue 6, p569-690, available at

Posted: 04/09/2013