Africa, a continent of 54 states, has experienced centuries of conflict. This research will analyze the underlying factors present in conflict throughout the continent. Seeking to understand the underlying factors could help prevent future conflict by creating preventive policy. The research will use six case studies based on Algeria, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Liberia, and Sudan to discuss the effects of colonialism and intrastate and ethnic conflict and to identify the deeper structures behind such conflict. This research will discuss the positive role of post-conflict governance and sustainable human development in post-conflict society (Ogbaharya, 2008).