McNair Scholars Research Journal


The impact of zero-tolerance, exclusionary discipline, and the school-to-prison pipeline has become increasingly present in research in recent years. Studies centered around zero-tolerance, exclusion, and the school-to-prison pipeline have made the focus on such studies boys of color, specifically Black boys. These studies have contributed to the amount of awareness that schools, parents, and the public have about the effects of unfair punishment practices. However, Black girls have been invisible, criminalized in educational settings, and are at a great risk of encountering the criminal justice system. Over the recent decades, Black girls experience exclusionary discipline almost six times more than White girls and almost seventy percent more than boys (Muñiz, 2021). The aim of this research is to discuss the history behind punitive practices within the school system and put an emphasis on this issue surrounding the effects of disciplinary actions against Black girls in school. The primary population targeted by these punitive practices are students of color.