Date Approved


Degree Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department or School

Health Promotion and Human Performance

Committee Member

Murali Nair, PhD, Chair

Committee Member

Geffrey Colon, PhD

Committee Member

Erik Pederson, PhD


Retention and transfer for ballistic open motor skills may best be achieved through specific + variable practice along with error estimation. Inconsistent support for the variability of practice hypothesis warrants a cross-testing of this hypothesis. Estimation had been used and found beneficial on ballistic closed motor skills, but what about ballistic open motor skills?

This study tests ballistic open motor skills on an anticipation timer. Specific and specific + variable practice groups coupled estimation and no-estimation conditions for testing purposes.

The results indicated that although there were no significant differences during acquisition, significant differences did exist for retention and transfer in support of the variability of practice hypothesis.

In conclusion, no particular practice condition aided learning during acquisition. Specific practice was more beneficial for retention, which did not support S+V-enhancing retention. And finally, estimation and S+V practice benefited transfer, which supports the variable of practice hypothesis.