Date Approved


Date Posted


Degree Type

Open Access Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department or School

Leadership and Counseling

Committee Member

James Berry, Ed.D., Chair

Committee Member

David Anderson, Ed.D.

Committee Member

Julie Chlebo, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Toni Stokes Jones, Ph.D.


In this study, teacher self-efficacy regarding technology use was examined. Data from a sample of teachers were analyzed to determine the degree to which these educators felt comfortable and confident with the infusion of technology in their practice. Additionally, the beliefs and attitudes these educators held toward the developmental appropriateness of technology were analyzed to determine if the level of integration in their classrooms was impacted by these beliefs and attitudes. This study analyzed surveys from 41 teachers (preschool and kindergarten) along with interviews of six participating teachers in the West Shore Educational Service District region in Michigan. Four of the primary findings of the study were the existance of a clear division between districts that have access to technology and those who do not based on a perceived unequal distribution of funding or focus on technology in the classroom. A second finding was that even in districts where technology was available, there were concerns about teachers struggling with the integration of it due to lack of training. Often times, teachers were feeling unprepared to teach with the tools provided and they were apprehensive about the use and worried children will perceive their limitations. The third primary finding was the importance of the teacher facilitating the learning and guiding the use of the technology tools with early learners so that they are used purposefully and with intention. Finally, the fourth primary finding was that the level of technology implementation tended to be higher for teachers with more years of experience, but was significantly higher for teachers who used the iPad in more personal ways suggesting that those who were using the devices outside of their classroom instruction were also those who were implementing more in the classroom.

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