Dawn Gallup

Date Approved


Degree Type

Open Access Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)

Department or School

Leadership and Counseling

Committee Member

Dr. Ronald Williamson, Chairperson

Committee Member

Dr. Murali Nair

Committee Member

Dr. John Shinsky


The purpose of this non-experimental, quantitative, retrospective (ex post facto), research in south central Michigan was to determine the relationship of six risk factors associated with dropping out of high school to students with disabilities (SWDs). The six risk factors were (a) grade retention (never held back or held back one or more times), (b) age compared to peers (same age as peers or one year or older than peers), (c) limited English proficiency (English speaking or English as a second language), (d) category of disability (learning disabled/emotionally impaired or cognitively impaired/other), (e) mobility (the number of school districts or educational settings attended), and (f) the time of year that students moved (during the school year or in the summer months).

A logistic regression and multiple logistic regression models were used to examine whether students with any combination of six factors were at higher risk for dropping out of school. The findings indicated that the age of the student (older than peers), number of educational settings attended (attended more than one school district in school career), and the time of the year moved (moved during the school year) are all individually significant predictors of SWDs dropping out of school. The findings also suggested that the factor of being one year or older than peers is predictive of dropping out of school when time of the year the student moved is controlled and vice versa.


Additional committee member: Dr. Gary Marx