Date Approved


Degree Type

Open Access Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department or School

Leadership and Counseling

Committee Member

David Anderson, EdD, Chair

Committee Member

Perry Francis, EdD

Committee Member

Richard Geisel, JD, PhD

Committee Member

Theresa Saunders, EdD


This non-experimental, explanatory, quantitative research study surveyed K-12 educators and other K-12 school employees to gather data about negative school workplace climate using the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R). Through the NAQ-R and other demographic survey questions, the researcher studied the prevalence and characteristics of adult-on-adult bullying in the K-12 workplace. Categories of Emotional Intimidation, Workplace Intimidation, and Physical Intimidation were identified and regressions were completed to analyze results against a study by Einarsen, Hoel, and Notelaers (2009). Using R. J. Bies's four categories of interactional justice, the characteristics of adult bullying in the K-12 workplace were identified and analyzed to measure statistically significant relationships. Utilizing Survey Monkey, over 2,460 Michigan K-12 educators and staff were asked to anonymously complete a 46-question online survey with 324 completing the entire survey. Demographic comparisons were made to data available through the Michigan Department of Education. The survey respondents (N = 324) indicated that 27.8% of these school district employees had been bullied by another adult, at a frequency level from infrequently to daily, during the first 7 months of the 2016-2017 school year. Results demonstrate that school administrators and school boards need to recognize and proactively address this issue through policy, procedures, training, prevention, enforcement, and positive resolution to provide a safe, non-threatening environment in which to work and learn.